Manual Sarah Bernardt - Projektion der Femme Fatale? (German Edition)
Under that moniker she released music of debatable quality and continued to act in less-than-stellar-movies, but along the way redefined the word sultry. She posed for this aggressive promo image around See two more stills from the movie here. At the time, Monroe was modeling just about anywhere she could find work, going by her real name Norma Jeane Daugherty. She was twenty years old, one year away from her first film appearance, and two years away from her first minor film contract with Columbia Pictures.
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The year after that, in , still trying to make ends meet, she posed nude for photographer Tom Kelley. In one photo from that session ended up on a Western Lithograph Co. Monroe was a contract player with 20th Century Fox by then, and the studio feared the photos would cause a scandal. They were wrong. Monroe admitted posing nude to pay the rent, and the public was fine with it.
The next month she appeared on the cover of Life. Why deny it? You can get one anyplace. Winters Denise Matthews Vanity Prince cinema sex symbol sexploitation. Gina Lollobrigida is born in Subiaco, Italy, and eventually becomes one of the world's most famous and desired actresses. Schmeling eventually tallies fifty-six wins, forty by knockout, along with ten losses and four draws before retiring in The official cause of his death is recorded as misadventure from ingesting various drugs.
Amelia Earhart fails to arrive at Howland Island during her around the world flight, prompting a search for her and navigator Fred Noonan in the South Pacific Ocean.
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No wreckage and no bodies are ever found. President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Bill into law, which makes the exclusion of African-Americans from elections, schools, unions, restaurants, hotels, bars, cinemas and other public institutions and facilities illegal. A side effect of the Bill is the immediate reversal of American political allegiance, as most southern voters abandon the Democratic Party for the Republican Party. Certain contexts produce more or less regular or uneven melodies, marking the affective or rhetorical nature of the enunciative situation in question.
Finally, speech can also tend toward chanting or litany. In such cases, we say that it sounds like a speaker is singing when they talk, and the melodic aspect of their speech, freed of the necessities of address, will favor expressiveness over expression. Certain forms of speech are built from pre-established tonal canons. Like this French railway announcement , for example, played on train station platforms.
This paradoxical excerpt is both regular and strangely inorganic. In many cases, speech is very clearly structured or implied by certain melodic standards that have been more or less well assimilated by a speaker. This sermon , this response to an interview, this story , all aim to give life to a scene or utterance that will make them more lively and attractive.
This process is characterized by repetitive utterances in which a speaker tries to make each iteration unique through pitch variation, as in shipping forecasts , this tongue twister , or this Gertrude Stein reading.
This kind of melody gives speech rhythm, as can be heard in this excerpt from an Abdellatif Kechiche film or in this lecture by Vladimir Jankelevitch. Physiological problems for this transsexual person going through hormone treatments , or, more largely, ailments produced by an overflow of emotion or the desire to produce some. Speech with uneven melodies belongs to a system that exceeds the typical boundaries of intonation, calling out to the pre-verbal kingdom of children or animals, as with this cowherd from Poitou guiding his animals , or this man imitating birdcalls.
A child discovers and tunes its vocal apparatus through a series of intuitive scales that allow it to measure tessitura and learn to modulate expressiveness. This is not far from the approach of certain twentieth-century poets or composers like Raoul Hausmann or Luciano Berio , who dismantled and reinvented traditional modes of singing and habitual forms of speech. Often, the extension of certain vowels pushes these forms of speech close to song, as in this hypnosis tape, this reading of a poem by its author, or this piece by John Cage. Hence, the collection also provides us with forms of speech whose tonal variations push them close to song.
This is the murky domain of sing-speech or speak-song. Opera recitatives , for example, are a means of playing with the tonal organization of speech. Occurs when speech puts itself on display, exposes or listens to itself, puts on a show. Overemphasis, which can be restrained or theatrical, is produced by making use of a certain number of speech parameters including intonation, articulation, accentuation, rhythm, vocabulary, and spacing.
Dominique de Villepin, excerpt of a statement to press just outside of the Clearstream trial, Overemphasis Occurs when speech puts itself on display, exposes or listens to itself, puts on a show. The French word emphase does not have the same connotations as the English word emphasis. As can be seen on a synthesizer, emphasis is an operation that acts upon amplitude and frequency to modify an audio signal.
When discussing breadth, however, emphase ,or overemphasis, is the process by which words amplify certain of their characteristics. We can find examples of overemphasis using various sonic volume, timbre, pitch, length and linguistic vocabulary, prosody parameters. Overemphasis by accentuation is typically found in advertising utterances or movie trailers , which draw their power of conviction from it.
This gap is required in theatrical speech even when not used for dramatic effect, as can notably be heard here with Sarah Bernhardt. One could imagine that this recording, which dates from , gives us a glimpse of the diction typical of the time. In this last example, we can hear the specific moment when everyday speech shifts into poetic verse.
Loss of control happens when a speaker takes the plunge and lets their words overtake the spectacular intentions that may have led to their outburst in the first place. Such is the case when the Dictator dramatizes his anger to the point of temporarily losing his voice, the performative aspect of the outburst presenting his actions as outstanding and attempting to give them an extraordinary quality. Everything is increased, as if the speaker did not have enough vocal cords to speak with and was forced to gather organic resources more deeply within themselves like this conductor whose instructions are louder than the orchestra.
These kinds of games can have an evolving nature. If overemphasis takes root over time, loss of control becomes an unstable process. And when a speaker loses their self-control, it is common to hear overemphasis lead to emptiness. Loss of control can happen when reaching a climax, giving the outburst a parodic quality. Occurs when speech distributes its tonic accents into regular patterns. Australian aboriginal chant, excerpt of Les Voix du monde : une anthologie des expressions vocales , Fassbinder, Coran reading by a Berber choir from the High Atlas mountains, excerpt of Les Voix du monde : anthologie des expressions orales , Pacing Occurs when speech distributes its tonic accents into regular patterns.
All speech is structured rhythmically. The most everyday forms of speech are marked by more or less regular accents and syllable onsets. How does pacing support its speaker? How do we use pacing? It paces itself. Indeed, pacing is not an inflexible phenomenon of speech: it fluctuates—and can often be seen as a process. We hear discourse being paced, or trending toward a certain pace, as in this excerpt where an English miner on strike calls for solidarity and justice , this Patti Smith performance , or this message by an unusual American politician see also We are now the generation of the heart of the fight back.
Sometimes pacing happens within the context of interlocution, in the game of alternation that constitutes speaking in turn. Some forms of speech are remarkable for the extreme nature of their pacing, for the extent to which they do not operate by the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed beats, but by accentuating every syllable.
This reading by Charles Pennequin offers an example. The paradox of this hammered form of pacing can be stated as follows: although spoken at the most regular possible tempo, it is perhaps the least rhythmic form of speech imaginable. As we saw with Obama, one of the most obvious effects of pacing is momentum.
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Pacing can also sometimes lead to a trance-like effect on the speaker and those around them see also: Fabienne Tabard , Dedication to the Tackling of the Beast and the Dragon , Santa Cruz. Even more paradigmatic is this excerpt of a documentary extolling the virtues of a method designed to stop stuttering , where the disability is overcome by cutting up an utterance and hammering it into separate syllables.
It can be a big help in reading a long question with limited time during a game, or it can function as a dramatic tool, as in this excerpt from a Fassbinder film. Pacing used as a means of saturation is best heard in tightly woven speech that progresses without spacing. This kind of tense rhythm makes interruption and interlocution equally difficult. This statement by lawyer Philippe Bilger gives us a very clear example of the process. It is a strategy used for convincing others.
It is therefore not surprising to hear strong forms of pacing in political speech. Some forms of speech are paced by an external activity they are indexed to: this is the case with horse racing commentary , auctions , or even when accompanying someone giving birth. Lastly, pacing can function as a way of doing something together, like reciting a poem or being with others for the duration of a protest or religious ritual see the entry on Chorality.
Occurs when speech is addressed to an absent interlocutor. Lacking any response, the speaker builds their speech around a projected image of the recipient in more or less intimate, generic, real, or stereotyped ways. Menon not only examines a wide array of images of the femme fatale within the context of the world of letters, but also incorporates research pertaining to scientific opinions of the time as well as contemporary theories of degeneration.