SP isclosely related to corpus planning as language planning policies can never besolely corpus-oriented or status-oriented. This termrefers to the instances and characteristics of variation which occur at thepresent time in language. That is, the way variation affects language at agiven time in history, for instance: gender, register, style, etc. In inflectional languages words have a number of suffixes which vary their shape according to the word they are added to.
A single suffix can express a number of different grammatical concepts, as in Latin. Synthetic languages are also known as inflectional. Ininflectional languages words have a number of suffixes which vary their shapeaccording to the word they are added to.
A single suffix can express a number ofdifferent grammatical concepts, as in Latin. Synthetic languages are also knownas inflectional. General conversational patterns are arranged in a way that onlyone speaker speaks at a time but the way turn-taking is organized depends oncultural specific factors.
Conversation needs to be two-way otherwise it turnsinto a monologue. Term usedto refer to a sort of language that is considered as a separate entity for somereason but which generally shares a great deal of common features with standardor other varieties. Not considered a different language.
Language varieties canbe very wide spread and standardized such as Australian English or American Englishbut they can also be very localized such as Cockney in London and Scouse inLiverpool. Language varieties can be very wide spread and standardised such as Australian English or American English, but they can also be very localised such as Cockney London or Scouse Liverpool. Flogy Study Guide Johnson.
Edit a Copy. Study these flashcards. Aboriginal languages. Situation in which a creole language coexists with a standard language and the latter exerts some influence over the former. African American Vernacular English. Analytic language. Auxiliary language.
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A language used for a special purpose which has a specific functional goal. Have a specialized jargon which tends to be the most difficult part as they are not very complex from a syntactic point of view. The basilect is the bottom variety which is closer to the creole and further away from the standard. Term closely related to bilingualism. Ground definition of dialect: a variant of a language due to geographical differences. Being bidialectal implies that the differences between the concerned codes are not so great as to prevent mutual intelligibility. Black English vernacular.
It has been demonstrated that the differences that distinguish Black English from standard English are paralleled in varieties of Black language spoken in other parts of the world such as the Caribbean and West Africa. Inthe UK, Black English is the result of the linguistic change from creolelanguages spoken by Afro-Caribbean immigrants which are influenced by Englishas a dominant language in the UK. Black English vernacular II. In the UK, BE is the result of linguistic change.
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BE has become more English-like for UK born descendants of the former immigrants. Borrowing can also occur at a syntactic level.
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Borrowing II - Causes. The domination of some languages by others due to cultural, economic, political, religious or other reasons. A sense of prestige associated with words or expressions coming from other languages. Borrowing III: difference with code switching. Not always clear, but there is no doubt in the case of historically transferred forms which have settled in the target language. Code-switching is spontaneous, affects all levels in linguistic structure simultaneously and is unstable as it depends on the context and the relationship between the speakers.
Co-ordinate bilingual. Probably entails the existence of 2 meaning systems with 2 different words. Both languages develop together or separately in the brain? This term applies to someone who has learnt twolanguages and both languages have been learnt in different contexts, and theyare kept distinct. It probably entails the existence of two meaning systemswith two different words.
This raises the question whether both languagesdevelop together or separately in the brain. The ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner. Communication competence II Dell Hymes. Considered that linguistic knowledge of grammar, pronunciation and lexicon not enough, speakers have other types of linguistic knowledge about how to use that language properly in society. This additional knowledge allows speakers to be sensitive to some determining factors: i. Acquired by native speakers, it also needs to be acquired by non-native speakers, together with linguistic competence.
Communication competence III. Compound bilingual. One language has been learnt after the other, therefore 2nd through the first one. Both are closely connected, composed of a single meaning system with two words or labels for a single meaning.
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This term describes a situation in which onelanguage has been learnt after the other and, therefore, through the first one. Both languages are closely connected as they are composed of a single meaningsystem with two words or labels for a single meaning. This raises the questionwhether both languages develop together or separately in the brain.
Corpus planning. Actions undertaken to partially modify nature or characteristics of a language in some way. CP closely related to status planning which refers to whether the status of a language could or should be raised or lowered. Dialect I. Geographical variation affects languages in the form of dialects. Locality correlates with differences in the way people speak the language.
Use of different words or pronunciations for the same word. This type of variation may also affect syntactic and intonation patterns. Geographical variation affects languages. Thisrefers to how locality correlates with differences in the way people speak thelanguage. Use different words or pronunciations. It may also affect syntacticand intonation patterns.
Nowadays, it tends to diminish due to the fact thatthe media and the communication infrastructures have a homogenizing effect onlanguages. Dialect II. The distinction between dialects and languages is not clearcut; socio-political factors play an important role in the decision. Is the study and search for idiosyncratic features in language use within a geographical area. Dialectologists usually analyse typical vocabulary, pronunciation, intonation patterns and other characteristics and try to match these with specific geographic areas.
Discourse analysis. Discourse marker i. Words, phrases or sounds that have no content meaning but play an important role in:.
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S ignalling conversational intentions. Assuring listener's cooperation. Types of discourse markers and their uses frequently change across languages. The combination of social and situational factors that generally influence the choice of code by speakers: code, dialect, location, register, style, topics, etc. This concept frequently used in studies of code-switching in multilingual contexts where various languages, dialects or styles are employed in different social settings.
Dormant bilingual. Bilinguals who do no longer use their languages but who acquired them in the past and reached a comprehensive knowledge and command. Endangered language. Languages develop, merge or die. A language is at risk or endangered when the number of speakers decreases.
Result of many factors but bad or adverse language planning is usually the case. Economics or the lack of importance of a language for business can cause its death. Many Amerindian languages are in this situation at the moment. English-lexifier creole. Ethnography of communication.
Ethnography of speaking I. Ethnography of speaking II, aspects it deals with:.