Hersh, who had the first of three sons at age 19, lost custody of her oldest, Dylan, to his father partly because she was in a touring band. But she refused to give up her art, and the sight of her playing Throwing Muses' jagged, hypnotic rock while huge with her second son, Ryder, was one of the most inspirational shocks the underground rock world got in the early 's. The way motherhood informed the artistic identity of such women is equally subversive.
Hersh's lyrics tend to be oblique, and the erotic, fractured ballads that fill her solo album, ''Strange Angels,'' would not necessarily conjure images of fecundity unless one knows that she wrote them while confined to her bed with a difficult third pregnancy. Hersh has also frankly discussed her family life in the news media; she kept a diary of the tour she recently took, with her two younger sons in tow, for the Webzine Hipmama. Hersh has set out to prove that the rock-and-roll life style is not bad for children or vice versa.
Her proof is in the obvious health and vitality of her sons, and of her music. Parents like Ms. Hersh are changing the scenes in which contemporary music is made and heard, and, just as important, confounding the argument that children must be protected from rock-and-roll's dangerous influence. Others, like Liz Phair and Amy Rigby, are making their mark through their lyrics.belowground.co.uk/libraries
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Rigby's debut album, ''Diary of a Mod Housewife,'' was hailed as a groundbreaking effort because its rootsy pop songs matter-of-factly broached subjects like marital boredom and dead-end pink-collar jobs. These were quotidian concerns that did not fit anyone's description of bohemian. But Ms. Rigby is undeniably bohemian, and she was describing that world's plain truths, not its wishful self-image. Her just-released second album, ''Middlescence,'' takes up her story at a new juncture. Now a single mom, she contemplates the drama of buying clothes off the clearance rack or trying to salvage a date when the kids demand to stay up past their bedtime.
The album's homespun sound suits its practical attitude; Ms. Rigby's songs capture reality instead of inflating it. Liz Phair goes in a similar direction on ''Whitechocolatespacegg,'' especially on the indelible ballad ''Go on Ahead,'' which plainly and simply elucidates the strain a new baby can put on a relationship. Once underground rock's most famous female sexual adventurer, Ms. Phair has not compromised her frank approach because she has settled down. The most triumphant thing about songs like hers and Ms.
Rigby's is that they so blithely cross lines few artists have even approached. Just as classic rock first broached forbidden subjects like sexuality, these women dig into the particulars of domestic experience with a frankness that challenges propriety. Not only is the reverent image of traditional family life violated, but rock's rule of silence on subjects considered ''novelties,'' as Ms. Rigby called making a living and having a family on her liner notes to her first album, is broken.
Neither sentimentalizing nor trivializing parenthood, today's artists target it with the same penetrating gaze that the Who applied to the generation gap in the 's. Few have done so with such force as the inimitable Courtney Love. Love has never been anybody's idea of the perfect mom: she had her daughter, Frances Bean, within a maelstrom of controversy about drug use and other irresponsible acts, then faced single parenthood when her husband, Kurt Cobain, killed himself.
Instead of trying to hide her troubles, she turned them into ferocious music.
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In , her band, Hole, released ''Live Through This,'' an album that staged a visceral attack on feminine stereotypes. Songs like ''Plump'' and ''I Think That I Would Die'' took on motherhood, their images of squirting milk and screaming hunger invoking the exhaustion, isolation and emotional bewilderment that are the dark side of maternity.
Hole's current album, ''Celebrity Skin,'' avoids these subjects. But ''Live Through This'' insured that no female artist would have to for fear of being called soft. Other daring women were not going to stand for such dismissals, anyway.
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When Sinead O'Connor returned to the spotlight with ''The Gospel Oak,'' she filled it with lullabies about pregnancy and mothering. And breaking an even bigger taboo, Tori Amos wrote about her recent miscarriage on her latest album, ''From the Choirboy Hotel. Yet this year's two best answers to the example of Ms. Love come from men. The songs ''Father of Mine,'' by the band Everclear, and ''Carriage for Two,'' by the English hip-hop experimenter Tricky, also rage against the damaged legacy of the nuclear family.
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Art Alexakis of Everclear berates a deadbeat dad for bequeathing his son a life of alienation; he ends with a pledge to do better for his own daughter, although his anger makes it clear that his promise will not be easy to fulfill. Love Dad,'' the new release by the progressive soul duo P. The album, inspired by the birth of a son to the group's primary songwriter, Prince Be, confronts fatherhood with equal parts love and apprehension.
With the lush, soothing grooves of the music creating a nurturing environment, Prince Be embarks on an inner journey that puts him in contact with the ghosts of his own childhood: an unloving mother and a father who died too young, tormentors who made him an outcast, his own self-loathing. At times, Prince Be's ire seems more like a sign of childishness than of growth, but his willingness to expose these vulnerabilities does make for a kind of cleansing.
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Like ''Mer Girl,'' the climactic song on ''Ray of Light'' that sends Madonna to mourn at her mother's grave, ''Dearest Christian'' shows a new parent uncovering a birthright of sorrow to break free of it. He turns toward his own son in tenderness and hope, but cannot deny his fears. The sense of struggle that animates his testimonies. While past rockers rebelled against the social control exerted by their elders, Prince Be and his peers are making art of the effort to break patterns set down within private life. The artist who set the stakes for these kinds of explorations was John Lennon.
On the Plastic Ono Band album ''Mother,'' Lennon brutally exposed the psychic scars that came from the frequent absence and early death of his mother, Julia, anticipating the therapeutic viewpoint that often pops up in current songs.
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Even more revolutionary was the role-switching he did with his wife, Yoko Ono, which made Mr. Lennon the world's most prominent househusband, an experience he wrote about in songs in the years before his death in The idea that this cultural powerhouse could retreat into the home struck many as bizarre; in fact, it was a brave move, making Mr. Lennon's radical politics a matter of his daily life as well as his art. When do they reach a threshold to abuse? When do they stop? And when do they relapse? At Metropolitan State College of Denver, Milkman was instrumental in developing the idea that people were getting addicted to changes in brain chemistry.
Alcohol also alters brain chemistry, of course. At the same time, the recruits got life-skills training, which focused on improving their thoughts about themselves and their lives, and the way they interacted with other people. Kids were told it was a three-month program. Some stayed five years. In , Milkman was invited to Iceland to talk about this work, his findings and ideas. He became a consultant to the first residential drug treatment centre for adolescents in Iceland, in a town called Tindar.
It was here that he met Gudberg, who was then a psychology undergraduate and a volunteer at Tindar. They have been close friends ever since. Milkman started coming regularly to Iceland and giving talks. She wondered: what if you could use healthy alternatives to drugs and alcohol as part of a program not to treat kids with problems, but to stop kids drinking or taking drugs in the first place?
Have you ever tried alcohol? If so, when did you last have a drink? Have you ever been drunk? Have you tried cigarettes? If so, how often do you smoke? How much time to you spend with your parents?
Do you have a close relationship with your parents? What kind of activities do you take part in? In , , and year-olds in every school in Iceland filled in a questionnaire with these kinds of questions. This process was then repeated in and The results of these surveys were alarming. Nationally, almost 25 percent were smoking every day, over 40 percent had got drunk in the past month. But when the team drilled right down into the data, they could identify precisely which schools had the worst problems—and which had the least. A few factors emerged as strongly protective: participation in organized activities—especially sport—three or four times a week, total time spent with parents during the week, feeling cared about at school, and not being outdoors in the late evenings.
It was called Youth in Iceland. Laws were changed. It became illegal to buy tobacco under the age of 18 and alcohol under the age of 20, and tobacco and alcohol advertising was banned.
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Links between parents and school were strengthened through parental organizations which by law had to be established in every school, along with school councils with parent representatives. A law was also passed prohibiting children aged between 13 and 16 from being outside after 10 p. Home and School, the national umbrella body for parental organizations, introduced agreements for parents to sign. The content varies depending on the age group, and individual organizations can decide what they want to include.
For kids aged 13 and up, parents can pledge to follow all the recommendations, and also, for example, not to allow their kids to have unsupervised parties, not to buy alcohol for minors, and to keep an eye on the wellbeing of other children. State funding was increased for organized sport, music, art, dance and other clubs, to give kids alternative ways to feel part of a group, and to feel good, rather than through using alcohol and drugs, and kids from low-income families received help to take part.
Crucially, the surveys have continued. Each year, almost every child in Iceland completes one. This means up-to-date, reliable data is always available. Between and , the percentage of kids aged 15 and 16 who reported often or almost always spending time with their parents on weekdays doubled—from 23 percent to 46 percent—and the percentage who participated in organized sports at least four times a week increased from 24 percent to 42 percent.
Meanwhile, cigarette smoking, drinking and cannabis use in this age group plummeted.
Participation in Youth in Europe is at a municipal level rather than being led by national governments. In the first year, there were eight municipalities.